NATO and the 5G challenge

The 5G controversy came to a head in early 2019. Many Allies became concerned about the security of future intra-Alliance commercial and military communications, primarily – but not only – because of risks posed by non-Allied suppliers. After months of discussion and debate, NATO leaders meeting in London in December 2019 stressed the importance of “the security of communications, including 5G” and recognised “the need to rely on secure and resilient systems”.

5G is the ‘fifth generation’ in mobile communications. In the 1980s, 1G enabled voice calls; messaging arrived with 2G in the 1990s; 3G brought limited multimedia, text and internet data in the 1990s and early 2000s; and, in the late 2000s, true data with access to dynamic information using various devices were made possible by 4G and LTE (‘Long-term Evolution’, a standard for improving wireless broadband speeds to meet increasing demand).

With the arrival of 5G networks, mobile

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The Ferrari 355 Challenge Sports Car

The Ferrari 355 Challenge – A close look at this classic sports car’s performance, technical data, features, comparing rivals, history, used prices.

From Classic to Modern:


The Ferrari 348 Challenge sports car was a race Series for amateur drivers, first established in 1993.

Ferrari offered an optional Challenge kit priced at $14,000 and, by using it, the original 348 could be transformed into the race version in the order of 60 man hours.

The 3.4 litre, V8 engine used in the Challenge Series, when converted, would develop an output of 320 bhp.

The 348 Challenge car’s last season was in 1995, which coincided with the launch of the 355 Challenge variant.

The Ferrari 355 Challenge car consisted of a basic 355 Berlinetta 3.5 litre coupe that had been modified using a Challenge kit costing $30,000, and supplied by Ferrari.

These kits first became available in 1996, and the … Read More

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